Science and Culture of Montenegro

Education of Montenegro

According to Andyeducation, almost half of the population of Serbia and Montenegro had only primary education or did not even receive it. Of the students admitted to elementary school, one in ten did not graduate. Up to 40% of students did not finish secondary school. As a result, only a third of the population had a secondary education. Higher education covered 16.5% of young people of student age, but only 6.4% of students who entered the faculties received a diploma in a timely manner. The position of the scientific sphere was dramatic. In 2000, only 0.22% of GDP was allocated for science (exactly an order of magnitude lower than in Germany). By 2010, research funding should be only 1.4% of GDP, while one of the conditions for admission to the EU was set at a minimum level of 3%.

Lack of funds did not allow to quickly rectify the situation in the field of education. Thus, for example, secondary school funding should reach only half of the 1990 level in 2005.

Appropriate attention in Serbia and Montenegro was also required by the problem of preserving and increasing the rich cultural heritage. In this regard, the undoubted national pride of the Serbian and Montenegrin peoples is their original Cyrillic writing, preserved in the neighborhood with the Latinized Western European culture. Forever went down in history who created it in the beginning. 19th century Founder of the national literary language folklorist Vuk Stefanovich Karadzic. At the same time, the work of the remarkable writer Dosifej (Dmitry) Obradovic marked the beginning of the flowering of Serbian classical literature. Subsequent contributions were made by Milovan Vidakovic, Lukijan Musicki, Simeon Milutinovic, Zmaj (Jovan) Jovanovic, Djura Jaksic, Laza Lazarević. A special place in this series is occupied by the literary work of the Montenegrin Bishop Peter the Second Petrovich Njegosh, who created one of the best works of Serbian literature – “Mountain Crown”. A whole galaxy of masters of the artistic word made a significant contribution to Serbian literature of the 20th century. She was especially enriched by the work of such well-known writers abroad as Ivo Andric (Nobel laureate 1961), Branislav Nusic, Milos Crnyansky, Branko Copic, Mesha Selimovic, Dobrica Chosic, Desanka Maksimovic, Antonie Isakovich, Alexander Tishma, Danilo Kish.

A significant contribution to contemporary world art was made by the Serbs in the field of cinematography. Widely known outside of Yugoslavia was the work of director Alexander Petrovich. The world-famous legend of Yugoslav cinema was the actor Velimir Bata Zivoinovich.

General information about Montenegro

The official name – Serbia and Montenegro, unites two equal states. Serbia has two autonomous provinces: Vojvodina, Kosovo and Metohija. Since 1999, due to the crisis of ethnic relations, the autonomous province of Kosovo and Metohija has been transferred under the jurisdiction of the UN. Located in the southeastern part of Europe.

Area 102,173 km2, incl. Serbia 88,361 km2 (including Kosovo and Metohija – 10,887 km2), Montenegro 13,812 km2. Population (2001) – 10.5 million people, incl. in Serbia – 9.8 million people. (of which in Kosovo and Metohija – 2.3 million people), Montenegro – approx. 660 thousand people The official language is Serbian. The administrative center is the city of Belgrade (1.7 million people, 2002), the capital of Serbia is the city of Belgrade, the capital of Montenegro is the city of Podgorica. Public holiday – Day of S. and H. 4 February. Monetary unit: in Serbia (excluding Kosovo and Metohija) – dinar, in Montenegro – euro, in Kosovo and Metohija – euro (in Albanian regions) and dinar (in Serbian regions).

Member of the UN, OSCE, IMF, World Bank, EBRD, etc., has an observer status in the WTO.

Education of Montenegro