Panama Population

Population Distribution

As of 2023, the latest population of Panama is 3,894,082, based on our calculation of the current data from UN (United Nations).

Total population 3,894,082
Population growth rate 1.20%
Birth rate 17.90 births per 1,000 people
Life expectancy
Overall life expectancy 78.13 years
Men life expectancy 75.35 years
Women life expectancy 81.04 years
Age structure
0-14 years 26.13%
15-64 years 65.30%
65 years and above 8.57%
Median age 28.60 years
Gender ratio (Male to Female) 1.02
Population density 51.63 residents per km²
Urbanization 57.10%
approx. 32% European-indigenous, 27% European-African, 14% Afro-indigenous, 10% European, 8% indigenous (Guaymi / Ngöbe-Buglé, Kuna, Emberá etc.), 5% African, 4% Asian descent
Catholics (Roman Catholic) 85%, Protestants 15%
Human Development Index (HDI) 0.795
HDI ranking 67th out of 194

People in Panama

The majority of Panama’s residents are descendants of a mix of Native American indigenous people with European immigrants, mostly Spanish. Their share is 65 percent, in the west of the country even 90 percent.

12 percent belong to the indigenous peoples, mainly Guaymí and Kuna, as well as a minority the Emberá in the east (on the border with Colombia) and Teribe in the northwest (on the border with Costa Rica).

Guaymí live mainly in the northwest in the province of Ngöbe-Buglé. These are also other names of their people: Ngöbe and Buglé. The Kuna live on the northeastern Caribbean coast and the offshore islands in the province of Guna Yala.

In 2011, a dam was built that flooded large parts of Guaymí territories. The planned construction of the Barro Blanco hydropower plant would result in further flooding. Guaymí lose their land. Damage can also be expected for the environment.

Who are the Kuna?

The Kuna maintain their old traditions and preserve their culture. This is how they practice their traditional handicrafts, especially sewing molas. The fabrics are decorated with geometric patterns. Several layers of different colored fabrics are artfully sewn together.

7 percent of the population are white. 9 percent are black. They are either descendants of black slaves that the Spaniards brought here from Africa. Or they are descendants of immigrants from the West Indies, i.e. from the Caribbean, in particular from Barbados and Jamaica. They speak a Creole language based on English.

4 percent of the population are Asians. They came to the country to help build the Panama Canal or railroad lines.

  • Children: Every woman in Panama has an average of 2.2 children. With us, every woman has an average of 1.4 children. So the families in Panama are bigger than ours.
  • Urban and rural: 68 percent of Panama’s residents live in the city. The Pacific coast is the most densely populated. A third of all residents live in the metropolitan area around the capital Panama City on the Panama Canal.

Languages in Panama

Spanish is the official language in Panama. 93 percent of the population speak Spanish as their mother tongue. However, the Spanish spoken in Panama is different from Spanish in Spain. There are even some differences to the other Central American countries.

Panamanian Spanish has more in common with Caribbean Spanish, that is, with the Spanish spoken in Puerto Rico, Cuba and on the Caribbean coasts of Colombia and Venezuela.

It can be recognized primarily by the pronunciation of the s, which is more breathy, i.e. pronounced more like an h (for example in the word cascada, pronounced like cah-cada). The same applies to the g (before e and i) and the j, which are spoken in Spanish like the ch in “ach”, but are breathed in in Panama. In addition, the Spanish ch (spoken: “tsch”) is spoken by many speakers like “sch”.

There are also a number of words that are completely different in Panama, such as saying pelao instead of chico to child. The last r is often left out of the infinitive, for example reí instead of reír (laugh). A d in the middle of a word is often left out: comío instead of comido.

Incidentally, many Panamanians also speak English. That’s why you can communicate quite well with English.

Indigenous languages

The indigenous people also speak their own languages. The Kuna language and Ngäbere as the language of the Guaymí are the most widespread. Both belong to the Chibcha languages. Traditionally they were only spoken and did not exist as script. Examples of Ngäbere: Ti aro kwete. That means, “I eat rice.” Tikwe ñaka ye noaema means, “I didn’t do that.”

The Emberá, of whom about 7000 people live in the east of Panama, also speak their own language.

Religions in Panama

About 80 percent of the population of Panama are Catholic, 15 percent Protestant. 2 percent belong to the Baha’i community. Other minorities are Mormons, Buddhists, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Jews, Muslims and Hindus.

Panama Overview

Panama, located at the southernmost tip of Central America, is renowned for its iconic Panama Canal, a marvel of engineering that connects the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Its capital city, Panama City, is a bustling metropolis known for its modern skyline, historic Casco Viejo district, and vibrant nightlife. Panama is famous for its biodiversity, with lush rainforests, pristine beaches, and diverse wildlife attracting nature enthusiasts from around the world. The country’s strategic location has made it a key hub for international trade and finance, contributing to its dynamic economy and cultural diversity.

  • Capital City: Panama City
  • Population: Approximately 4.3 million
  • Area: 75,417 square kilometers
  • Full Country Name: Republic of Panama
  • Currency: Panamanian Balboa (PAB), United States Dollar (USD)
  • Language: Spanish
  • ISO Country Codes: PA, PAN

Bordering Countries of Panama

Panama is a Central American country located in the Caribbean Sea and it borders a number of other countries. To the north of Panama lies Costa Rica, a nation renowned for its stunning beaches and vibrant cities such as San José. To the east of Panama lies Colombia, a country with an interesting cultural heritage and stunning landscapes. To the south of Panama lies Ecuador, a rugged nation known for its remote mountain tribes and rainforest jungles. Finally, to the west of Panama lies Nicaragua, a small but prosperous nation home to numerous historical sites left over from its past. All these countries have their own unique culture and history that make them great destinations for travelers looking to explore Central America. Costa Rica is known for its rich culture such as its distinctive cuisine, while Colombia has numerous national parks filled with lush mountains and valleys. Ecuador is renowned for its remote mountain tribes such as the Huaorani, while Nicaragua has many historical sites such as Granada’s old city to explore.


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